Table 1.

Summary site descriptions and hydraulic conductivity test methods employed

SiteType/vegetationAge of structure (years)Predominant materialsOperatorTest methodsNo. of tests
Newcastle (BIONICS)Trial, embankment/grasses<10Glacial till (PI = 16%), capped with a 0.5 m coarse gravelNewcastleGuelph–single cell85
Laverton, GloucestershireRail, embankment/mature trees and bushes>100End tipped local Charmouth Mudstone (PI = 30–40%)Queen's–Bath–BGSGuelph–double-ring8
Charing, KentRail, embankment/mature trees and shrubs>100Gault Clay (PI = 35%), industrial ashSouthampton–Mott MacDonaldGuelph4
Newbury, HampshireRoad, cutting/grasses and shrubs<20London Clay (PI = 35%)SouthamptonDouble-ring–Guelph–single cell–bailout23
Craigmore, Northern IrelandRail, cutting/grasses and shrubs>100Glacial till deposits (PI = 12–17%)Queen's, BelfastGuelph11
Loughbrickland, Northern IrelandRoad, cutting/grasses and shrubs<10Glacial till deposits (PI = 16–25%)Queen's, BelfastGuelph12