Table 1.

Summary of physical properties, chemical compositions, and toxic metals or metalloids of the groundwaters.

SpeciesMinimumMaximumMeanSDCVNCDIS
pH6.28.27.30.40.060 (0)Normal
T (°C)1.817.39.43.50.370 (0)Normal
EC (μS cm−1)778713161760.560 (0)Normal
DO3.89.97.81.80.240 (0)Normal
Ca6.20116.2829.5222.430.760 (0)Normal
Mg1.5024.487.844.910.630 (0)Normal
Na4.7033.2013.867.390.530 (0)Normal
K0.4510.461.581.611.020 (0)Log normal
NH4ND2.410.080.354.3429 (58)NA
Si1.3513.668.772.930.330 (0)Normal
BrND1.280.050.234.9248 (96)NA
Cl3.4545.1012.429.260.750 (0)Normal
FND0.500.160.120.7210 (20)NA
NO2ND0.350.010.056.5649 (98)NA
NO3ND106.7018.6024.361.312 (4)Log normal
PO4NDNANANANA50 (100)NA
SO45.60392.8649.7489.111.790 (0)Log normal
HCO32.0097.4815.0020.061.340 (0)Log normal
CODMnND4.401.030.890.878 (16)NA
Al (μg l−1)ND468061218151.5133 (66)2001
Cr (μg l−1)NDNDNANANA50 (100)501
Mn (μg l−1)ND828657330091.8129 (58)3001
Fe (μg l−1)ND22802727591.1516 (32)3001
Cu (μg l−1)ND8430230.7541 (82)10001
Zn (μg l−1)41128051410140.890 (0)10001
As (μg l−1)ND4715141.7437 (74)501
Cd (μg l−1)ND171171.2847 (94)101
Pb (μg l−1)ND904931.3248 (96)501
  • Units are mg l−1 unless otherwise noted. SD, standard deviation; CV, coefficient of variation; NC, number of censored values (proportion %); DIS, distribution of data values, P <0.05; ND, not detected, below detection limit 1 μg l−1 (censored value); NA, not available; COD, chemical oxygen demand.

  • 1South Korean drinking water standards (μg l−1).