Table 2.

Taxonomy of failures distinguishing ‘induced’ and ‘fortuitous’ causes

DefinitionGeneric example
FortuitousEvents located outside the field of action of the actors involved and independent of their decisions. A fortuitous failure is independent of the actors involvedHeavy rain, political decisions
InducedEvents located inside the field of action. Notion of free will, possibility to do differently. An induced failure is caused by a choice, an actOversizing a valve (or not), allocation of budgets